cervical cancer in women
anal cancer in straight men
anal cancer in HIV - gay men
anal cancer in HIV + gay men
Risk factors for anal cancer:
receptive anal intercourse
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2
HPV has similar carcinogenic effects on the anus as it does on the cervix. Anal cancer is preceded by detectable premalignant changes in the anal mucosa and is related to specific HPV infections. Similar to cervical Pap smears, checking for pre-malignant lesions of the cervix, it is recommended that anal cytological screening be performed every three years for all individuals (men and women) who engage in receptive anal intercourse, and every year for HIV positive individuals who engage in receptive anal intercourse .
Directions for performing an anal Pap smear:
position the patient as for a digital rectal exam with anal exposure (do the pap smear before a digital rectal exam)
visually examine the anus and surrounding area for active lesions
spread the buttocks with one hand in order to visualize the anoderm
insert a Dacron swab or cytobrush into the anus 1 or 2 inches and rotate the brush 360° several times while moving it in and out
roll the brush onto a microscope slide and apply cytological fixative
Remember to label the sample as coming from the anus.
4. Anonymous [Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association]. Health care needs of gay men and lesbians in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1996;275(17):1354-1359.