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References for this Section

1. Abernathy, T. J., Webster, G., Vermeulen, M. (2002) Relationship Between Poverty and Health Among Adolescents. Adolescence, 37, 145 , 55-67.

2. Vernberg, E. M. (1990). Psychological adjustment and experiences with peers during early adolescence: Reciprocal, incidental, or unidirectional relationships. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 18: 187-198.

3. Hao, L. (1995). Poverty, public assistance, and children in intact and single-mother families. J. Fam. Econ. Issues 16: 181-205.

4. Schubiner, H., Scott, R., and Tzelepis, A. (1993). Exposure to violence among inner-city youth. J. Adolesc. Health 14: 214-219.

5. Aneshensel, C. S., and Sucoff, C. A. (1996). The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health. J Health Soc. Behav. 37: 293-310.

6. Klebanov, P.K., Gordon, R. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J. (1997). Are neighborhood effects on young children mediated by features of the home environment. In (eds.), Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, Vol. 1. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY.

7. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., & Aber, J. L. (Eds.). (1997). Neighborhood poverty: Vol. 1. Context and consequences for children. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

8. Jencks, C., & Phillips, M. (Eds.). (1998). The Black–White test score gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

9. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: Effects of neighborhood residence upon child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–337.

10. Sampson, R. J. (1997). Collective regulation of adolescent misbehavior: Validation results from eighty Chicago neighborhoods. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 227–244.

11. Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 603–651.

12. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.

13. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., Flor, D., McCrary, C., Hastings, L., and Conyers, 0. (1994). Financial resources, parent psychological functioning, parent co-caregiving, and early adolescent competence in rural two-parent African-American Families. Child Dev. 65: 590605.

14. Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Jr., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., and Whitbeck, L. B. (1993). Family economic stress and adjustment of early adolescent girls. Dev. Psychol. 29: 206-219.

15. Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. J., Jr., Lorenz, F. O., and Simmons, R. L. (1994). Economic Stress, coercive family processes, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Dev. 65: 541-561.

16. Harold, G. T., Fincham, F. D., Osborne, L. N., and Conger, R. D. (1997). Mom and dad are at it again: Adolescent perceptions of marital conflict and adolescent psychological distress. Dev. Psychol. 33: 333-350.

17. Tannenbaum, L., Neighbors, B., and Forehand, R. (1992). The unique contribution of four maternal stressors to adolescent functioning. J. Early Adolesc. 12: 314-325.

18. Lempers, J. D., Clark-Lempers, D., and Simons, R. L. (1989). Economic hardship, parenting, and distress in adolescence. Child Dev. 60: 25-39.

19. McLeod, J. D., and Shanahan, M. J. (1993). Poverty, parenting, and children's mental health. Am. Sociol. Rev. 58: 351-366.

20. Ross, D.P., Roberts, P., Income and child Well-being: A New Perspective on the Poverty Debate, Canadian Council on Social Development, 1999, pg. 11