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Family Influences

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Research indicates that economic deprivation can produce stress within the family.  Economic stress, in turn, can create an unfavourable emotional home environment by precipitating parental depression, resulting in marital conflict [13], [14], [15].

Direct relations between both parental depression and marital conflict and young adolescent socio-emotional problems also have been observed [16], [17].

Economic stress also can affect youth socio-emotional problems through a direct link with parenting practices that are harsh and physical, inconsistent, emotionally unsupportive, and conflicted [18], [19]; or economic stress can affect parenting practices indirectly through its associations with parental depression and marital conflict [13], [14], [15].

 

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13. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., Flor, D., McCrary, C., Hastings, L., and Conyers, 0. (1994). Financial resources, parent psychological functioning, parent co-caregiving, and early adolescent competence in rural two-parent African-American Families. Child Dev. 65: 590605.

14. Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Jr., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., and Whitbeck, L. B. (1993). Family economic stress and adjustment of early adolescent girls. Dev. Psychol. 29: 206-219.

15. Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. J., Jr., Lorenz, F. O., and Simmons, R. L. (1994). Economic Stress, coercive family processes, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Dev. 65: 541-561.

16. Harold, G. T., Fincham, F. D., Osborne, L. N., and Conger, R. D. (1997). Mom and dad are at it again: Adolescent perceptions of marital conflict and adolescent psychological distress. Dev. Psychol. 33: 333-350.

17. Tannenbaum, L., Neighbors, B., and Forehand, R. (1992). The unique contribution of four maternal stressors to adolescent functioning. J. Early Adolesc. 12: 314-325.

18. Lempers, J. D., Clark-Lempers, D., and Simons, R. L. (1989). Economic hardship, parenting, and distress in adolescence. Child Dev. 60: 25-39.

19. McLeod, J. D., and Shanahan, M. J. (1993). Poverty, parenting, and children's mental health. Am. Sociol. Rev. 58: 351-366.

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