Men tend to present at a later stage of depression, when symptoms become severe, to specialist service.
Early onset major depressive disorder may reduce the educational attainment and earning potential of women compared to men.
Men and women currently undergo the same investigations to diagnose lung cancer, despite being diagnosed with different histological types.
In women, smoking is linked to lower fertility, cancer of the cervix, osteoporosis, and difficulties with both menstruation and menopause.
Smoking during pregnancy is associated with lower birth weight babies.
Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur at a higher rate in female than male athletes at a similar level of competition.
8. Berndt ER, Koran LM, Finkelstein SN, Gelenberg AJ, Kornstein SG, Miller IM, Thase ME, Trapp GA, Keller MB Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 June;157:940-7. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/157/6/940 http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/depression/depression-impact-and-incidence-03.jsp
9. Moore, S.M., Kramer, F.M., Women’s and Men’s Preferences for Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1996, 16:123. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/cardiovascular/cardiovascular-rehabilitation-03.jsp
10. Anonymous [Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association]. Health care needs of gay men and lesbians in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1996;275(17):1354-1359. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp
11. Lee R. Health care problems of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients. Western Journal of Medicine. 2000;172:403-408 1999. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp
12. Solarz, AL Ed. Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future. Washington DC. National Academy Press; 1999. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp
15. Carhart, R.L., Ades, P.A., Gender Differences in Cardiac Rehabilitation. Cardiology Clinics. 1998;16(1): 37-43. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/cardiovascular/cardiovascular-rehabilitation-03.jsp
16. Limacher, M.C., Exercise and Rehabilitation in Women: Indications and Outcomes. Cardiology Clinics. 1998;16(1): 27-36. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/cardiovascular/cardiovascular-rehabilitation-03.jsp
17. Peterkin A, Risdon C. Caring for Lesbian and Gay People: A Clinical Guide. 2003. University of Toronto Press Incorporated. Toronto, Ontario. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp
18. Davis V, Christilaw JE, Edwards C, Francoeur D, Grant LJ, Parish B, Saraf-Dhar R, Steben M. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines. Policy Statement No. 87. Lesbian Health Guidelines. Journal of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. 2000;22(3):202-205. http://sogc.medical.org/SOGCnet/sogc_docs/common/guide/pdfs/ps87.pdf. Accessed on July 18, 2003. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-relevance-02.jsp