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...but does it really matter?

  • Women are 20% less likely than men to enrol in cardiac rehab programmes.[16][15][9]

  • Men tend to present at a later stage of depression, when symptoms become severe, to specialist service.[1]

  • Early onset major depressive disorder may reduce the educational attainment and earning potential of women compared to men.[8]

  • Men and women currently undergo the same investigations to diagnose lung cancer, despite being diagnosed with different histological types.

  • In women, smoking is linked to lower fertility, cancer of the cervix, osteoporosis, and difficulties with both menstruation and menopause.

  • Gay men are six times more likely and lesbians are twice as likely as their heterosexual counterparts to attempt suicide.[17][10][11][12]

  • Smoking during pregnancy is associated with lower birth weight babies.

  • Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur at a higher rate in female than male athletes at a similar level of competition.[36]

  • It is estimated that up to 10% of the population identify themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered.[18][13][14][10][11][12]

YES, it really matters, gender is a determinant of health!

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1. World Health Organization, Gender and Mental Health, Report June 2002. http://www.who.int/gender/other_health/en/ http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/depression/depression-diagnosis-02.jsp

8. Berndt ER, Koran LM, Finkelstein SN, Gelenberg AJ, Kornstein SG, Miller IM, Thase ME, Trapp GA, Keller MB Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 June;157:940-7. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/157/6/940 http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/depression/depression-impact-and-incidence-03.jsp

9. Moore, S.M., Kramer, F.M., Women’s and Men’s Preferences for Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1996, 16:123. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/cardiovascular/cardiovascular-rehabilitation-03.jsp

10. Anonymous [Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association]. Health care needs of gay men and lesbians in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1996;275(17):1354-1359. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp

11. Lee R. Health care problems of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients. Western Journal of Medicine. 2000;172:403-408 1999. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp

12. Solarz, AL Ed. Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future. Washington DC. National Academy Press; 1999. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp

13. Kaiser Permanente National Diversity Council. A Provider's Handbook on Culturally Competent Care: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Population. Oakland, CA. Kaiser Permanente; 2000.

14. Lee R. How to talk about sex with patients who are not heterosexual. Western Journal of Medicine. 2000;172(6):401-402.

15. Carhart, R.L., Ades, P.A., Gender Differences in Cardiac Rehabilitation. Cardiology Clinics. 1998;16(1): 37-43. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/cardiovascular/cardiovascular-rehabilitation-03.jsp

16. Limacher, M.C., Exercise and Rehabilitation in Women: Indications and Outcomes. Cardiology Clinics. 1998;16(1): 27-36. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/cardiovascular/cardiovascular-rehabilitation-03.jsp

17. Peterkin A, Risdon C. Caring for Lesbian and Gay People: A Clinical Guide. 2003. University of Toronto Press Incorporated. Toronto, Ontario. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-social-issues-01.jsp

18. Davis V, Christilaw JE, Edwards C, Francoeur D, Grant LJ, Parish B, Saraf-Dhar R, Steben M. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines. Policy Statement No. 87. Lesbian Health Guidelines. Journal of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. 2000;22(3):202-205. http://sogc.medical.org/SOGCnet/sogc_docs/common/guide/pdfs/ps87.pdf. Accessed on July 18, 2003. http://www.genderandhealth.ca/modules/html/sexandsexuality/gss-relevance-02.jsp

36. Dugan SA. Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: what gives? Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;84(2):122-30.

All references for this section