- Physical, verbal, or sexual abuse occurs disproportionately towards women, and can result in long-term mental problems including depression .
Violence related mental health problems are also poorly identified. Women are reluctant to disclose a history of violent victimization unless physicians ask about it directly.
Lifetime prevalence rate of violence against women ranges from 16% to 50%.
At least one in five women suffer rape or attempted rape in their lifetime.
"Violence against women encapsulates all 3 features identified in social theories of depression -- humiliation, inferior social ranking and subordination, and blocked escape or entrapment." 
10. Heise LL. Gender-based abuse: The global epidemic. In: Reframing women's health: Multidisciplinary research and practice. Ed: Dan, AJ. London: Sage Publications, 1994. 233-250.
11. Mullen PE, Martin JL, Anderson JC, Romans SE, Herbison GP (1993), Childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life; British Journal of psychiatry; 163: 721-732.
12. World Health Organization. The world health report, Project Atlas. Mental health: New Understanding, New hope. http://www.who.int/whr2001/2001/main/en/media/project-atlas.htm
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