This specific group of symptoms (defined in DSM IV) that affects 3-5% of women and occurs during most menstrual cycles, it is separate from the more common PMS.
50-80% of mothers experience this transient period of mild depression, mood instability, anxiety following birth that can last up to 10 days post partum.
10% of mothers develop post partum depression, where symptoms of major depressive episode that occur within 4 weeks of birth, lasting 2-6 months. These may be augmented by negative social factors, stressful life events. Screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale can be helpful in practice. There is new evidence that men can also suffer from post partum depression, a recent study showed that this occured in 2-4 % of men.
Depression may occur in women following other reproductive health problems such as infertility, hysterectomy, urinary incontinence, urogenital disorders.