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A Piece of History

For many years CHD has been recognized as the disease of the middle aged and elderly men. Past research has mainly focused on older men’s risk factors, presentation and treatment of cardiac disease. But...


  • 1970: Women’s experience and tolerance of cardiac surgery began to appear in medical literature[1]

  • 1980: Increased focus on various health issues concerning women (abuse, breast cancer, menopause, cardiovascular health)[2].

  • 1995: A chapter on cardiovascular disease in women was written for the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada[3].

  • 1997: The American Heart Association presented a scientific statement on cardiovascular disease in women[4].

  • 1999: The American Heart Association presented a scientific statement on the primary prevention of cardiac disease in women in the United States[5].

  • 2004: The American Heart Association has provided recommendations on cardiovascular risk factor management for women.[6]


1. King. K.M., Paul P. (1996) A Historical Review of the Depiction of Women in Cardiovascular Literature. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 18(1): 89-101.

2. Allen, D., Allman, K.K.M., and Powers, P., (1991) Feminist Nursing Research Without Gender. Advances in Nursing Science, 13 (3): 49-58.

3. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada: Heart disease and stroke in Canada. Ottawa, Canada, 1995.

4. Mosca, L., Manson, J.E., Sutherland SE. Cardiovascular Disease in Women. A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. 1997; 96:2468-2482.

5. Mosca, L. Grundy, S.M., Judelson, D., (1999) Guide to Preventive Cardiology for Women. Circ, 99:2480-2484.

6. Mosca et al. American Heart Association Scientific Statement. Evidence-Based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women. Circulation. 2004;109:672-693. accessed: February 15, 2006

All references for this section