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There are at least 3 steps for a successful diagnosis of angina:

Step 1
  • Take a careful clinical history with an emphasis on defining chest pain characteristics. During this stage the physician must play close attention to the symptoms present as women have tendency to show symptoms other than chest pain. For example, neck, abdominal pain or nausea can be indicative of angina.

  • Step 2
  • Taking into consideration the risk factors that have a stronger predictive value in women than in men. Consideration of factors such as age, gender, risk factors, and symptoms can provide higher diagnostic certainty for test results. These diagnostic considerations are known as pre-test likelihood, and are helpful when choosing diagnostic tests.

  • Step 3
  • Choose the appropriate diagnostic test. In most cases testing is most beneficial for patients with intermediate pre-test likelihood of disease[1].

  • Complete the following multiple choice question quiz:



    1. Redberg, R.F., (1998) Coronary Artery Disease in Women: Understanding the Diagnostic and Management Pitfalls. Medscape Women’s Health, 3:1.

    All references for this section