There are "emerging" risk factors which are presently under investigation which will help to increase our understanding of CVD. We are coming to a greater understanding of the role that psychosocial risk factors play in CVD. In addition, numerous large scale studies have demonstrated that high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an independent risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction and death due to cardiovascular disease in both sexes. Despite the similarities that exist in the risk factors for CHD between men and women, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are currently being investigated for gender differences. Risk factors such as oral contraceptives and menopause i.e. hypoestrogenemia, are unique to women. Non-modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease unique to women include increased life expectancy and postmenopausal status.