Site Home   Gender and Cardiovascular Disease       Introduction to Gender and Health   The Gender Lens Tool


When a person is thinking about becoming an ex-smoker, what are the stages for change?

Find your answer on the Health Canada website.

  1. Even brief but intense interventions by physicians can work to reduce smoking in women. (Observational studies, quality of evidence II Grade B recommendation)[1][9].

  2. Advocate for including women and youth. This might include a smoking cessation payment plan. (Consensus)[1][9]



1. Amberson, B.L., (2000) Risk Factors and Primary Prevention of Ischemic Heart Disease in Women. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference: Women and Ischemic Heart Disease, October 2000: 4/1-4/25.

9. Froelicher ESS, et al. High Rates of Sustained Smoking Cessation in Women Hospitalized With Cardiovascular Disease: The Women’s Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS) Circulation 2004; 109: 587 - 593.

All references for this section